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There are so many critters out there, bacteria and viruses that want to wreak havoc in our bodies. How do we defend ourselves against such tiny threats? The immune system! This is quite possibly the most profoundly remarkable aspect of the human body. It almost defies comprehension, the resourcefulness and efficiency of this system. An in-depth analysis will require an entire separate immunology course which will come in the future, let's just get our feet wet for the moment! Watch the whole Anatomy & Physiology playlist: 🤍 For way, way, way more information on the immune system check out my immunology playlist: 🤍 General Chemistry Tutorials: 🤍 Organic Chemistry Tutorials: 🤍 Biochemistry Tutorials: 🤍 Biology/Genetics Tutorials: 🤍 Biopsychology Tutorials: 🤍 Microbiology/Infectious Diseases Tutorials: 🤍 Pharmacology Tutorials: 🤍 History of Drugs Videos: 🤍 Immunology Tutorials: 🤍 EMAIL► ProfessorDaveExplains🤍gmail.com PATREON► 🤍 Check out "Is This Wi-Fi Organic?", my book on disarming pseudoscience! Amazon: 🤍 Bookshop: 🤍 Barnes and Noble: 🤍 Book Depository: 🤍
Explore the basics about the immune system with The Amoeba Sisters! This video talks about the three lines of defense and also compares cell-mediated response with the humoral response. * Factual References: Clark, M. A., Douglas, M., & Choi, J. (2018). Biology 2e. Houston, TX: Biology Stax. 🤍 Reece, J. B., & Campbell, N. A. (2011). Campbell biology. Boston: Benjamin Cummings / Pearson. * Further Reading Suggestions: Discover many other types of white blood cells here! 🤍 More about antibody classes? 🤍 More detail about the cell-mediated and humoral response? 🤍 * The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching biology at the high school level. Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach, and they focus on her specialty: secondary life science. Learn more about our videos here: 🤍 Support Us? 🤍 Our Resources: Biology Playlist: 🤍 GIFs: 🤍 Handouts: 🤍 Comics: 🤍 Unlectured Series: 🤍 Connect with us! Website: 🤍 Twitter: 🤍 Facebook: 🤍 Tumblr: 🤍 Pinterest: 🤍 Instagram: 🤍 Visit our Redbubble store at 🤍 TIPS FOR VIEWING EDU YOUTUBE VIDEOS: Want to learn tips for viewing edu YouTube videos including changing the speed, language, viewing the transcript, etc? 🤍 MUSIC: Our intro music designed and performed by Jeremiah Cheshire. End music in this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library 🤍 COMMUNITY: We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines and how YouTube handles comments that are reported by the community. We also reserve the right to remove comments. TRANSLATIONS: Thank you for those that have translated the subtitles!! German subtitles translated by Laura Bilinson. Romanian subtitles translated by Proseanchin Tudor-Ioan. Some translated subtitles on our videos were translated by the community using YouTube's community-contributed subtitle feature. After the feature was discontinued by YouTube, we have another option for submitting translated subtitles here: 🤍 We want to thank our amazing community for the generosity of their time in continuing to create translated subtitles. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us. We have an authorized channel with our videos dubbed in Spanish here 🤍
The Immune System: B and T Cells in a Snap! Unlock the full A-level Biology course at 🤍 created by Adam Tildesley, Biology expert at SnapRevise and graduate of Cambridge University. The key points covered of this video include: 1. Introduction to Primary and Secondary Responses 2. The Primary Immune Response 3. The Secondary Immune Response Introduction to Primary and Secondary Responses When a pathogen infects the body for the first time the initial immune response is slow. This slow response is called the primary immune response. The primary immune response is the initial response caused by a first infection. In the primary response antibodies specific to the pathogen’s antigens are produced. This takes a long time because there are many steps required to produce specific antibodies. When the infection is cleared the specific antibodies do not stay in the blood. When the body is infected for a second time by the same pathogen antibodies have to be made again. This immune response is much quicker the second time - this is called the secondary immune response. The secondary immune response is a more rapid and vigorous response caused by a second or subsequent infection by the same pathogens. The Primary Immune Response In the primary immune response the immune system has never come across the pathogen before. Lymphocytes have to first detect the pathogen’s antigens to produce a specific response. To produce specific antibodies B lymphocytes have to undergo clonal selection and clonal expansion. The correct B lymphocyte then has to differentiate into plasma cells and memory B cells. The plasme cells produce lots of the specific antibody which clears the infection. However this whole process takes a long time and symptoms usually appear. The Secondary Immune Response When the same pathogen invades the body for a second time there are already memory cells in the blood. Memory cells quickly recognise the specific antigens from the same pathogen. Memory B cells can then rapidly differentiate into plasma cells. Memory T cells are also activated and can differentiate into T killer cells and T helper cells. The secondary response is quicker because clonal selection and clonal expansion are skipped. Plasma cells produce antibodies much sooner and more rapidly in the secondary response than in the primary response. The concentration of antibodies thus reaches a higher concentration in a shorter period of time. This is usually quick enough to prevent any symptoms from appearing. Summary The primary response is much slower than the secondary immune response In the primary response clonal selection, clonal expansion and differentiation have to occur to produce specific antibodies In the secondary response these steps are skipped In the secondary response memory cells immediately detect the same pathogen This causes them to rapidly differentiate into plasma cells This allows specific antibodies to be produced quickly and at a high concentration Therefore the infection is cleared before any symptoms can appear
In this video lecture we will study.. Primary Immune Response Secondary Immune Response
In this short video we will be going over the primary and secondary immune responses. The primary immune response occurs during the first time the immune system is exposed to a particular antigen. The secondary immune response comes into play when the immune system reacts to a previously known antigen. Check out this link to buy an instant digital download of immunology nursing notes: 🤍 This video is part of the immune system for nursing students playlist. ✅ Subscribe for more videos to help you succeed in nursing & pass NCLEX & Med Surg: 🤍 Let's be friends on Pinterest - 🤍 Other instant digital download nursing notes available for purchase: Immune System & Disorders Bundle - 🤍 Integumentary System, Disorders, Wound Healing, Pressure Ulcers, & Burns Bundle - 🤍 Respiratory System - 🤍 OTHER VIDEOS YOU MIGHT LIKE: How Antigens Work - 🤍 How Adaptive Immunity Works - 🤍 Immune Response Cells - 🤍 Let's be friends on: IG 🤍 FB 🤍 Pinterest 🤍 Resources: Saunders Comprehensive Review for the NCLEX-RN® Examination 🤍 Understanding Pathophysiology 🤍 0:00 - Intro 0:10 - Primary Immune Response 0:56 - Secondary Immune Response Medical Disclaimer The information, including but not limited to, text, graphics, images, videos, audio files, comments, discussions, and other material contained in this video are for informational purposes only. The material in this video is NOT intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health care provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition or treatment and before undertaking a new health care regimen, and never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have seen, read, or heard on this video. I endeavor to be correct regarding the information I present in these videos; however, medical research is continually being updated thus the information in this video might one day be outdated or inaccurate regarding primary immune response and secondary immune response. There may be affiliate links in this video or description
Immune response in Hindi | primary and secondary immune response - This immunology lecture explains about Immune response primary and secondary. The immune response is the body's way of protecting itself from infection and disease. This video will explore the different parts of the immune system, how they work together to fight off invading microorganisms, and some of the ways that the immune system can be damaged or overwhelmed.The immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body against infections and other foreign invaders. This video will explore the immune response, including the different types of immunity, how immunity works, and how the immune system fights off disease. This video covers the basics of the primary and secondary immune response. It discusses how both types of immune response work, what the differences are, and when each type is activated. When pathogens invade the body, the immune system quickly responds by producing antibodies to specifically target that invader. The immune response can be broadly divided into two phases - the primary immune response, and the secondary immune response. In this video, we'll take a look at what each of these phases entails, as well as some of the key players involved in mounting an effective immune response. For more information, log on to- 🤍 Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- 🤍 Download the study materials here- 🤍 Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- 🤍shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – 🤍shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – 🤍shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – 🤍shomusbiology.com Facebook page- 🤍 Twitter - 🤍 SlideShare- 🤍slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- 🤍 LinkedIn - 🤍 Youtube- 🤍 Thank you for watching the immunology lecture on Immune response in Hindi | primary and secondary immune response.
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📌 𝐅𝐨𝐥𝐥𝐨𝐰 𝐨𝐧 𝐈𝐧𝐬𝐭𝐚𝐠𝐫𝐚𝐦:- 🤍 📌𝗝𝗼𝗶𝗻 𝗢𝘂𝗿 𝗧𝗲𝗹𝗲𝗴𝗿𝗮𝗺 𝗖𝗵𝗮𝗻𝗻𝗲𝗹 𝗛𝗲𝗿𝗲:- 🤍 📌𝗦𝘂𝗯𝘀𝗰𝗿𝗶𝗯𝗲 𝗧𝗼 𝗠𝘆 𝗠𝗮𝗶𝗹𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗟𝗶𝘀𝘁:- 🤍 Humoral immune response The parts of the immune system mediated by proteins and other macromolecules that are secreted into bodily fluids and/or the bloodstream. The humoral immune response of the innate immune system includes acute phase reactants and the complement system. The humoral immune response of the adaptive immune system includes B cells and secreted antibodies. #humoralimmuneresponse #immunology #humoralimmunity
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The immune system (or immunity) can be divided into two types - innate and adaptive immunity. This video has an immune system animation. The innate immune system consists of defenses against infection that are activated instantly as a pathogen attacks. Adaptive immunity (or acquired immunity) is a subsystem of the immune system that contains highly specialised systemic cells and processes that kill pathogens and prevent their growth in the body. Innate vs adaptive immunity: it’s important to realize that innate and adaptive immunity are different. Their differences are explained in the video in layman terms. Our immune system is a fascinating entity, that functions in quite a unique and efficient manner. Comprising of various types of cells, it is prepared for any kind of breach in the fortress of our body, and is equipped to fight off a staggering number of intruders. In this video, we give you a brief overview of the immune system, and the basic types of cells involved, along with the function they carry out. Each cell if the immune system carries out various roles, depending on the kind of threat the body is facing. However, they have certain basic roles which have been explained here. #science #animation #immunesystem 0:00 - Introduction 0:46 - Innate Immunity 1:53 - Inflammation 2:35 - Types of Immune cells 4:20 - Adaptive Immunity References 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 If you wish to buy/license this video, please write to us at admin🤍scienceabc.com. Voice Over Artist: John Staughton ( 🤍 ) SUBSCRIBE to get more such science videos! 🤍 Follow us on Twitter! 🤍 Follow us on Facebook! 🤍 Follow our Website! 🤍
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Primary vs Secondary Immune Response 12 Differences
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in this video i have explained about primary and secondary immune response with graphical representation in easy way. #immuneresponse #primaryimmuneresponse #secondaryimmuneresponse
The immune system is the basic defence system of the body that protects us from harmful pathogens and diseases. GERM INFECTED PLACES YOU TOUCH EVERY DAY : 🤍 The immune system consists of various types of cells and different proteins that kill the harmful invading micro-organisms and protect our body from disease. In this video we will discuss about the human immune system. What is the basic structure of the Human Immune system and how it functions Join our Community at Patreon and get Awesome Rewards : 🤍 Merch STORE : bit.ly/2KaICaE Pathogens can rapidly evolve and adapt, and thereby avoid detection and neutralization by the immune system; however, multiple defense mechanisms have also evolved to recognize and neutralize pathogens. Even simple unicellular organisms such as bacteria possess a rudimentary immune system in the form of enzymes that protect against bacteriophage infections. Other basic immune mechanisms evolved in ancient eukaryotes and remain in their modern descendants, such as plants and invertebrates. These mechanisms include phagocytosis, antimicrobial peptides called defensins, and the complement system. Jawed vertebrates, including humans, have even more sophisticated defense mechanisms,[1including the ability to adapt over time to recognize specific pathogens more efficiently. Adaptive (or acquired) immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen. This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination. The immune system protects organisms from infection with layered defenses of increasing specificity. In simple terms, physical barriers prevent pathogens such as bacteria and viruses from entering the organism. If a pathogen breaches these barriers, the innate immune system provides an immediate, but non-specific response. Innate immune systems are found in all plants and animals. If pathogens successfully evade the innate response, vertebrates possess a second layer of protection, the adaptive immune system, which is activated by the innate response. Here, the immune system adapts its response during an infection to improve its recognition of the pathogen. This improved response is then retained after the pathogen has been eliminated, in the form of an immunological memory, and allows the adaptive immune system to mount faster and stronger attacks each time this pathogen is encountered. The complement system is a biochemical cascade that attacks the surfaces of foreign cells. It contains over 20 different proteins and is named for its ability to "complement" the killing of pathogens by antibodies. Complement is the major humoral component of the innate immune response. Many species have complement systems, including non-mammals like plants, fish, and some invertebrates. In humans, this response is activated by complement binding to antibodies that have attached to these microbes or the binding of complement proteins to carbohydrates on the surfaces of microbes. This recognition signal triggers a rapid killing response. The speed of the response is a result of signal amplification that occurs after sequential proteolytic activation of complement molecules, which are also proteases. After complement proteins initially bind to the microbe, they activate their protease activity, which in turn activates other complement proteases, and so on. This produces a catalytic cascade that amplifies the initial signal by controlled positive feedback. The cascade results in the production of peptides that attract immune cells, increase vascular permeability, and opsonize (coat) the surface of a pathogen, marking it for destruction. This deposition of complement can also kill cells directly by disrupting their plasma membrane
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✔ 🤍 ✔ 🤍 ✔ Ask questions here: 🤍 Follow us: ▶ Facebook: 🤍 ▶ Review Us: 🤍 • Pathogens enter the body by penetrating the non-specific barriers in the skin and mucus membranes. • Pathogens first encounter macrophages and natural killer cells that carry out phagocytosis and cytolysis respectively. • A pathogen's first encounter with the immune system can promote: • Fever. ▪ Inflammation. ▪ More phagocytosis. ▪ More cytolysis. • A pathogen may cause an infection that battles non-specific mechanisms for a few days or more. • Immune cells (B and T cells) exposed to the antigens initiate the mechanisms of specific resistance: • B cells produce antibodies. • T cells secrete chemicals to lyse the infected cell. • Activated complement proteins enhance phagocytosis, lysis of cells, and inflammation. • Initial specific resistance results in an increase of the number of available antigens, triggering the proliferation of B and T cells. • Number of antibodies increases exponentially. • Specific response eventually overcomes infection. • Specific resistance remembers antigens that have previously triggered the immune system (immunological memory). • Levels of antibodies and lymphocytes, prior to the first exposure, are low. • First exposure triggers primary immune response and produces long-lasting antibodies and memory B and T cells. • Presence of memory cells produces a secondary response that is much faster and more effective. • Immunological memory is the basis for immunization vaccinations.
4.1.1. Communicable diseases OCR A level Biology A g) The primary and secondary immune responses. To include T memory cells and B memory cells
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Non-specific immune responses are the same for all types of infection. Pretty much all of our primary defences are non-specific. Here we will briefly talk about the basic types of primary defences (barrier and chemicals) then details on inflammation, including the chemicals involved and their functions, explaining the symptoms. Please subscribe for more content and comment below to let me know what you think! :) Facebook: BioRach - A-level Biology Online 🤍 Twitter: 🤍BioRachProject 🤍 Background music: Direct to Video by Chris Zabriskie is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution licence (🤍 Source: 🤍 Artist: 🤍
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Chapter 11 Immunity for 2 nd semester. Untuk pelajar Matrikulasi (Sains Hayat (Module 1) dan Sains Komputer (Module 3) seluruh Malaysia. Menggunakan dwibahasa
✔ 🤍 ✔ 🤍 ✔ Ask questions here: 🤍 Follow us: ▶ Facebook: 🤍 ▶ Review Us: 🤍 Overview of interactions in antibody-mediated and cell-mediated immunity Animation The antibody-mediated immune response begins when a naive B cell encounters antigens from a pathogen, such as a bacterium. The B cell binds, processes, and displays this antigen. It is now an antigen-presenting B cell. A naive helper T cell binds to the antigen-presenting B cell. This activates the helper T cell. The activated helper T cell secretes chemical signals called interleukins. The interleukins stimulate the B cell to divide and form memory B cells and effector B cells. The effector B cells produce antibodies against the antigen that began the immune response. The memory B cells remain to protect against later infections by the same pathogen. The cell-mediated immune response begins with an antigen-presenting cell, such as a macrophage that has engulfed or been infected with a virus. Naive helper T cells and naive cytotoxic T cells interact with the antigen-presenting cell. The helper T cell is activated and secretes the chemical signals called interleukins. The interleukins stimulate the cytotoxic T cells to divide and differentiate to form effector cytotoxic T cells and memory T cells. The effector cytotoxic T cells touch-kill cells infected by the same pathogen that triggered the initial response. The memory T cells are set aside to protect against later infections.
The primary immune response is the first encounter with a foreign antigen. Compared to the primary response, the secondary antibody response occurs more quickly and produces antibody levels that are higher and more sustained. Immunity comes in two forms: Active and Passive. Link to Lecture Slides: 🤍 *Due to the description character limit the full work cited for "Primary and Secondary Immune Responses" can be viewed at... 🤍